2020 Poster Session

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Poster Sessions

     

2020 Poster Presenter Award Winners

      

Poster Titles

1:

Tiana DiBenedetto

COMPARISON OF RELATIVE FAT MASS EQUATION AND BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) IN PREDICTING BODY COMPOSITION OF MALE COLLEGIATE ATHLETES

6:

Melissa L Brown, PhD, RD, CSSD, LD

PREVALENCE OF FOOD INSECURITY IN NCAA COLLEGIATE ATHLETES

2:

Lara Tupper

INSTAGRAM® AS AN EFFECTIVE PLATFORM FOR TEACHING TARGETED NUTRITION MESSAGES TO HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES.

7:

Melissa L Brown, PhD, RD, CSSD, LD

RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIAL OLYMPICS HEALTH PROMOTION DATABASE FOR NUTRITION-SPECIFIC VARIABLES

 

3:

Caitlyn Garner

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND VITAMIN D, CALCIUM, AND IRON INTAKE IN FEMALE RUNNERS ACROSS A COMPETITIVE YEAR

8:

Roger Figueroa

YOUTH SPORT PARTICIPATION AND NUTRITION OUTCOMES IN COMMUNITY SETTINGS: A SCOPING REVIEW

4:

Ashley Hinderer

DIETARY INTAKES IN FEMALE RUNNERS OVER A COMPETITIVE YEAR COMPARED TO CURRENT DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ATHLETES

9:

Rebecca Gonter-Dray

MEETING COMMUNITY AND STUDENT NEEDS THROUGH A SPORTS NUTRITION AND WELLNESS CLUB

5:

Allison, Childress Ph.D., RDN, CSSD, LD

PREVALENCE OF EATING DISORDERS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH A PREVIOUSLY SUFFERED CONCUSSION AMONG STUDENT-ATHLETES AT A POWER FIVE CONFERENCE UNIVERSITY

10:

Allison J. Gregg, RDN, LD/N

NUTRITION BEHAVIORS OF LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS

 


 

COMPARISON OF RELATIVE FAT MASS EQUATION AND BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) IN PREDICTING BODY COMPOSITION OF MALE COLLEGIATE ATHLETES

View Abstract
Category: Undergraduate Student Poster

Research Type: Original Research

Primary Presenter Name: Tiana DiBenedetto

Supporting Names:

  • Sophie Kenny
  • Madeline Quigley
  • Briannah De Lorme
  • Kevin Pietro, MS, RD, LD

Learning Objective:

Participants will be able to determine the usefulness of the Relative Fat Mass (RFM) equation as a predictor of body composition in college athletes.

Abstract:

Body Mass Index (BMI) has been widely used as a predictor of adiposity and overall health status in the general population. It is recognized that using BMI leads to misclassification among athletes as BMI does not adequately account for the fat-free mass in this population. In 2018, Woolcott and Bergman developed the Relative Fat Mass (RFM) equation (64 − (20 × height/waist circumference) + (12 × sex); sex = 0 for men and 1 for women) by using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 data, as an alternative to BMI to predict body fat in the general population. This study examined to what extent the RFM equation would serve as a predictor of body fat in male collegiate athletes. To address the primary research question, participants (n=119; basketball (n=10), soccer (n=34), hockey (n=29), and football (n=46)) were invited to undergo body composition testing through air displacement plethysmography via the BOD POD. From this sample, BMI (r=0.855), RFM (r=0.842), and waist circumference (r=0.877) demonstrated strong and statistically significant correlations (p<0.001) to body fat percentage (BFP). Examining RFM, BMI and BFP at the sport-specific level, BMI displayed a stronger correlation to BFP in basketball (r=0.829, p<0.005) and soccer (r=0.527, p<0.005) compared to RFM (r=0.761, p<0.05; r=0.360, p<0.05). Unlike for hockey, RFM demonstrated a moderate and statistically significant correlation (r=0.475, p<0.01) to BFP, while BMI was not statistically significantly correlated (r=0.359, p=0.56). Football, both RFM (r=0.867) and BMI (r=0.833) had strong, statistically significant correlations (p<0.001) to BFP. This was consistent even when separating football players based on position. Based on the findings, it does not appear that the RFM equation offers greater accuracy than BMI in predicting a male collegiate athlete’s body composition. More research is needed to determine if this is consistent among female collegiate athletes and professional athletes.

 


 

INSTAGRAM® AS AN EFFECTIVE PLATFORM FOR TEACHING TARGETED NUTRITION MESSAGES TO HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES

View Abstract
Category:
Undergraduate Student Poster

Research Type: Excellence in Practice Tools and Strategies

Primary Presenter Name: Lara Tupper

Supporting Names:

  • Lara C. Tupper
  • Jennifer L. Zuercher, PhD, RD
  • Katherine Mora, PhD, RD

Institution:

Department of Applied Health
Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville (SIUE)
Edwardsville, IL

Learning Objective:

Participants will understand how Instagram® can be an effective practice tool for teaching sports nutrition concepts to young athletes. Participants will be able to interact with and use the pilot Instagram® account via tablet device to illustrate the ideas and approaches used in this study to teach targeted nutrition messages to a high school cross country team, their parents, and coaches.

Abstract:

Poor nutrition plays a key role in development of injury and prolonged recovery from injury among high school cross country (XC) runners, as well as can interfere with overall growth and wellness. A need exists to better educate high school XC runners, their parents, and coaches on age-appropriate and evidence-based nutrition recommendations. Many high school students perceive value in learning through social media, which offers a fun and interactive way to connect posted information with their real world experiences. The purpose of this study was to provide targeted sports nutrition messaging using Instagram® as a platform to teach a high school cross country team, their parents, and their coaches.

Cross country coaches, runners, and parents from one Midwest, private high school were selected as the subjects for this study. A private, Instagram® account was created with specific nutrition content to address the needs of these high school XC athletes. Investigators were solely responsible for creating, posting, sharing, and managing the content. The Instagram® account was opened to the team, parents, and coaches at the start of the 2019 XC season. During the post-season, qualitative data was collected through focus groups and structured interviews, with athletes and coaches, respectively.

The Instagram® account served as a useful resource for the team, coaches, and parents to all receive the same nutrition messaging in the same manner throughout the XC season. The athletes and coaches were excited to use the Instagram® account, and found this platform to be an effective teaching strategy for engaging young athletes about nutrition. Both coaches and athletes identified the personalized cooking videos and the nutrition infographics as helpful. Other high school sports teams may benefit from using Instagram® as a platform for innovative and reliable sports nutrition education.

 


 

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND VITAMIN D, CALCIUM, AND IRON INTAKE IN FEMALE RUNNERS ACROSS A COMPETITIVE YEAR

View Abstract
Category:
Graduate Student Poster

Research Type: Original Research

Primary Presenter Name: Caitlyn Garner, Medical Dietetics and Health Sciences

Supporting Names:

  • Ashley Hinderer, Medical Dietetics and Health Sciences
  • Sakiko Minagawa, MS, RDN, Peak Performance Sports Nutrition, Boulder, CO
  • Julie Kennel, PhD, RDN, LDN, Human Nutrition, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH;
  • Jackie Buell, PhD, RDN, CSSD, ATC, Medical Dietetics and Health Sciences, 2Sports Medicine

Learning Objective:

Participants will understand the bone density pattern of female distance runners.

Abstract:

The use of nutritional periodization during a competitive season with the intent to optimize health and performance has become a cornerstone of elite training. Overall energy intake as well as specific nutrients, such as vitamin D, calcium, or iron, may be periodized and have an effect on bone mineral density (BMD) across time.

Objectives: Describe the relationship between whole-body and site-specific BMD with dietary intake of vitamin D, calcium, and iron across a competitive year. The relationship between energy availability (EA) as a predictor of lumbar spine BMD will also be evaluated across the year.

Methods: The longitudinal study recruited 11 college-aged (22.67+/-1.8 years) female distance runners across a competitive year (3 visits), with 9 participants completing at least 2 visits. Measures at each study visit included anthropometrics, dual x-ray absorptiometry (iDXA), blood analyses, dietary food records and a Vioscreen food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and questionnaires regarding injury history, menstrual health, and modified activity questionnaire (MAQ).

Results: The study collected complete iDXA data on all nine subjects. Seven subjects have completed data for the diet and physical activity, thus EA. Preliminary data suggests participants’ distal radius BMD status fluctuated the most with a first visit mean Z-score of -1.25, second visit mean of -1.26, and third visit mean of -1.30. Calcium, vitamin D, and iron intake also decreased at visit 2 and 3 compared to the baseline visit. Preliminary analysis also suggests there may be a positive correlation between calcium and iron intake and BMD in the distal radius; however, thus far there appears to be no correlation between lumbar spine BMD and EA across the year. Other analyses are still underway to model the most influential factors across the study to predict BMD.

Conclusions: Final statistical analyses will determine the conclusions of the study.

 


 

DIETARY INTAKES IN FEMALE RUNNERS OVER A COMPETITIVE YEAR COMPARED TO CURRENT DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ATHLETES

View Abstract
Category:
Graduate Student Poster

Research Type: Original Research

Primary Presenter Name: Ashley Hinderer, Medical Dietetics and Health Sciences

Supporting Names:

  • Ashley Hinderer, Medical Dietetics and Health Sciences
  • Caitlyn Garner, Medical Dietetics and Health Sciences
  • Sakiko Minagawa, MS, RDN, Peak Performance Sports Nutrition, Boulder, CO
  • Timothy Miller, MD, Sports Medicine
  • Diane Habash, PhD, RDN, LDN, Medical Dietetics and Health Sciences
  • Julie Kennel, PhD, RDN, LDN, Human Nutrition, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH;
  • Jackie Buell, PhD, RDN, CSSD, ATC, Medical Dietetics and Health Sciences, 2Sports Medicine

Learning Objective:

Participants will understand whether female distance runners are meeting their current dietary recommendations.

Abstract:

Background: Little is known about dietary intakes, food habits, and overall diet quality over a competitive year in female endurance runners. This study is looking to describe how well athletes periodize their nutrition across a competitive year relative to the nutrients of concern.

Objectives: Examine the  nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in female collegiate runners with the current dietary recommendations across a competitive year for energy, energy availability, macronutrients, and vitamin D, calcium, and iron intake.

Methods: This longitudinal study included 3 visits over a competitive year, and enrolled 11  female distance runners, with 9 completing at least 2 visits. Each lab visit included anthropometry, dual x-ray absorptiometry (iDXA), along with multiple questionnaires, including modified activity questionnaire (MAQ), a three-day food record, and VioScreen food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).  The nutritional indicators were calculated as an average of the food record (evaluated in ESHA) with the FFQ.

Results: The final study included 9 runners with complete nutritional data for 7 athletes.  The runners  were 20-25 years old (mean 22.67), were still in college or had run in college and still running.  The average weight and height were  55.02+/- 4.7kg and 162.4+/-5cm, respectively.  The average mileage per week was 38.7, 35, and 43.5 across the visits, and the calories and nutritional intake across time will be presented. Preliminary data shows an increase in mileage yet decrease in calories across time to negatively impact energy availability. Results for how different nutritional factors change across time are being evaluated, but it appears that few participants were meeting the evidence-based needs for total energy, carbohydrate, protein intake, or the micronutrients.

Conclusions: Final conclusions will depend on the final statistical analysis. Preliminary results suggest athletes were not periodizing or adjusting for nutritional needs over time.

 


 

PREVALENCE OF EATING DISORDERS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH A PREVIOUSLY SUFFERED CONCUSSION AMONG STUDENT-ATHLETES AT A POWER FIVE CONFERENCE UNIVERSITY

View Abstract
Category:
Professional Poster

Research Type: Original Research

Primary Presenter Name: Allison, Childress Ph.D., RDN, CSSD, LD

Supporting Names:

  • Eduardo, Gonzalez, MD
  • Allison, Childress PhD, RDN, CSSD, LD
  • John, Dawson, PhD
  • Dayna, McCutchin, MS, RDN, CSSD, LD

Learning Objective:

Participants will understand the role sustaining a concussion may have in developing disordered eating symptoms.

Abstract:

Objectives: This study aims to estimate the prevalence of Eating Disorders (ED) and their association with a previously suffered concussion among student-athletes at a Power Five conference university.

Methodology:  An observational, cross-sectional, and survey-based study was conducted among student-athletes of a Power Five conference university in Lubbock, Texas. Assessments of eating disorders were carried out using the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses (QEDD), which operationalizes ED criteria of the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Questionnaires were administered via the web-based survey platform Qualtrics. A total of 413 student-athletes were eligible for the study.

Major findings: Final analysis included data from 158 student-athletes across 11 different sports disciplines. A total of 7 respondents (4.4%, 95% CI: 1.9%, 9.2%) met diagnostic criteria for ED: 6 cases of Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) and 1 case of non-purging Bulimia. A majority of cases of EDNOS were observed among student athletes participating in Track & Field (n=4). Thirty-four respondents (21.5%, 95% CI: 15.5%, 28.9%) reported symptoms of ED but did not meet diagnostic criteria. Binging was the most prevalently reported symptom (n=22, 65%). Statistical analysis of the incidence of ED and disordered eating among those with (n=54), and without, a previous concussion demonstrated no significant difference (p = 1 and p = 0.7, respectively; Fisher’s exact test).

Conclusions: An important prevalence of disordered eating behaviors seems to exist among this student-athlete population. However, no significant association with a previous concussion was found. Nonetheless, such results warrant for the implementation of effective screening measures and interventions for ED and associated symptoms considering their potential adverse effects on student-athletes’ long-term physical and mental health.

Funding Source: Texas Tech University

 


 

PREVALENCE OF FOOD INSECURITY IN NCAA COLLEGIATE ATHLETES

View Abstract

Research Type:

Primary Presenter Name: Melissa L Brown, PhD, RD, CSSD, LD, Department of Nutrition and Public Health, University of Saint Joseph, West Hartford, CT

Supporting Names:

  • Christine Karpinski, PhD, RD, CSSD, LDN, Department of Nutrition, West Chester University, West Chester, PA
  • Michelle Mackenzie, MS, RD, CD-N, Department of Nutrition and Public Health, University of Saint Joseph, West Hartford, CT
  • Elizabeth Abbey, PhD, RD, Department of Health Sciences, Whitworth University, Spokane, WA

Learning Objective:

Describe the prevalence of food insecurity among NCAA student athletes across all divisions.

Abstract:

Food insecurity, defined as a lack of consistent access to safe and healthy food, is an emerging public health problem among college students.  Studies have reported a prevalence of food insecurity of 20-42% in this population, and the risk rises in college students that have experienced food insecurity during their youth. The lay media has recently shined a spotlight on the existence of food insecurity in the collegiate athlete population; however, very little research has been done in this population. Given the seriousness of the overall consequences on health and well-being that food insecurity poses, a systematic approach to quantifying the problem should be undertaken.  Herein we describe a multiphase project intended to collect information that will lead to a better understanding of the existence and scope of food insecurity in collegiate athletes, which may then be used to help direct university policies and programs to best meet the needs of these student athletes.  This project will be performed in three phases.  Each phase will correspond to data collection from one of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Divisions.  Phase 1 will begin with the largest Division in the NCAA (Division III) with 450 member institutions and over 190,000 athletes.  An anonymous, online (Qualtrics) survey has been created  and recently distributed to collegiate athletes that are at least 18 years of age, of any gender, and of any varsity sport.  It includes questions related to food insecurity and other demographic information.  Data will be analyzed using basic descriptive statistics and correlations. Once data collection is complete in Division III, phase 2 will begin with the same survey in Division II student athletes followed by phase 3 for Division I student athletes.

 


 

RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIAL OLYMPICS HEALTH PROMOTION DATABASE FOR NUTRITION-SPECIFIC VARIABLES

View Abstract
Category:
Professional Poster

Research Type: Program and Project Reports

Primary Presenter Name: Melissa L Brown, PhD, RD, CSSD, LD

Supporting Names:

  • Melissa L Brown, PhD, RD, CSSD, LD, Department of Nutrition and Public Health, University of Saint Joseph, West Hartford, CT
  • Kaneen Gomez-Hixson, MS, RDN, CD-N, Department of Nutrition and Public Health, University of Saint Joseph, West Hartford, CT
  • Nicole Batista, Special Olympics Connecticut, Hamden, CT
  • Jean Herzog, PhD, Special Olympics Connecticut, Hamden, CT

Learning Objective:

Participants will understand the current nutrition issues plaguing the underserved Special Olympics population.

Abstract:

Studies have consistently shown that individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) exhibit a higher prevalence of chronic diseases, such as obesity, compared to the general population. Studies have also shown that individuals with IDD are often inactive with increased sedentary behavior and consume a poor quality diet.   International organizations, such as Special Olympics, have recognized the critical importance of improving diet quality and decreasing obesity in this population.  Special Olympics encourages and empowers individuals with IDD through programming in sports, health education and community building. Special Olympics is dedicated to promoting a healthy lifestyle and providing educational programming and resources to help the athletes improve their overall health and athletic performance.  There is data available on the nutritional needs and status of individuals with intellectual disorders in general but very little is known about the underserved Special Olympic Athlete population specifically.  As a direct result of this gap in knowledge, Special Olympics International has been collecting health-related data on the athletes and incorporating it into what is now the largest international health promotion database specifically on the health of people with intellectual disabilities. The database is currently highly underutilized and the project described herein, is to our knowledge, the first of its kind.  This goal of this project is to help close the health disparity gap for individuals participating in Special Olympics by establishing a baseline set of data for health and nutrition indicators.  The baseline status will be used to develop targeted health and nutrition educational programming to improve diet quality, reduce obesity and decrease the incidence of chronic diseases and complications in this population.  Efforts towards our overall goal and baseline status results will be described.  Practical applications and the next step toward achieving the overall goal will also be included.

 


 

YOUTH SPORT PARTICIPATION AND NUTRITION OUTCOMES IN COMMUNITY SETTINGS: A SCOPING REVIEW

View Abstract
Category:
Professional Poster

Research Type: Original Research

Primary Presenter Name: Roger Figueroa

Supporting Names:

  • Roger Figueroa, PhD, MPH, MSc
  • Christina, Figueroa, MSc, RDN, CSSD, LDN

Institution: Cornell University

Learning Objective:

Participants will gather an overview of the current evidence related to youth sports participation and nutrition outcomes in community settings.

Abstract: Youth sports participation is a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity. Some researchers argue that the increase in sports participation may encourage a “double standard” in also promoting unhealthy diets. For example, studies have found that children’s sporting venues heavily promote unhealthy food and beverage consumption.

Keyword search was performed in January 2020 using three electronic bibliographic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science). The search strategy included peer-reviewed publications between 2000 and 2020. Inclusion criteria included—age: 2–19 years; setting: community setting (e.g., schools, parks); main outcomes: sport participation and nutrition outcomes.

13 studies met the inclusion criteria, which were published between 2000-2019. Most studies were cross-sectional with an average sample size of 3,195 children and adolescents. All studies were conducted in schools across three countries (USA, Canada, Australia). Two RCTs included a sports nutrition component. Sport participation was assessed through self-report questionnaires, followed by sampling criteria. Nutrition was assessed through various food, beverage, and supplement consumption questionnaires, followed by psychosocial traits of dietary habits. In sum, adolescents’ age and males were more likely to consume sports supplements (2 studies). Youth athletes tend to consume greater fast foods on game days than practice days, as well as boys were more likely to consume fast foods (2 studies). One intervention study focusing on sports nutrition knowledge (SNK) found significant increases in SNK among intervention group vs control group. There was mixed evidence towards fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption (50% of studies measuring F&V), as well as mixed evidence towards consumption of SSBs and sports drinks (50% of studies measuring these beverages) in relation to sports participation.

Future studies should address gaps in the evidence base linking sport participation and nutrition, as well as examine differences across contexts, ethnicities, gender when designing research studies and programs in community settings.

 


 

MEETING COMMUNITY AND STUDENT NEEDS THROUGH A SPORTS NUTRITION AND WELLNESS CLUB

View Abstract
Category:
Professional Poster

Research Type: Program and Project Reports

Primary Presenter Name: Rebecca M. Gonter-Dray, MSEd, RDN, CSP, LD;

Supporting Names:

  • Diana K. Cuy Castellanos, PhD, RDN, LD

Institution: Health and Sports Science, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH

Learning Objective:

Participants will be able to identify how a similar program can be initiated within their institution.

Abstract:

Sports nutrition is a specialized field in dietetics and is an interest of many dietetic majors. Therefore, a Sports Nutrition & Wellness Club was created in 2018 to provide experiential learning for dietetic majors that have expressed interest in sports nutrition and address a need expressed from the University and local communities. Upon initiation into the club using the “train the trainer” model, dietetic students are mentored and trained in nutrition assessment, evaluation, intervention and counseling of clients. The two tasks of the club are to provide individual nutrition counseling sessions and athlete cooking and sports nutrition education classes. The individual counseling sessions include clients from the University Wellness Program and Recreation Sport. Along with mentoring from a registered and licensed dietitian nutritionist (RDN LD), dietetic majors work in pairs to complete full nutrition assessments using the Nutrition Care Process and the Nutrition Data Set for Research (NDSR) nutrient analysis program. During the cooking and education sessions, the club collaborates with University athletic teams to provide evidenced based sports nutrition information relevant to their sport coupled with hands-on cooking skills that reinforce the education. All sessions are reviewed and attended by a registered and licensed dietitian nutritionist (RDN LD). The Sports Nutrition & Wellness Club has grown from eight dietetic majors to approximately 22 in a 18 month time span. Currently, data is being collected to measure impact of the two tasks and how the Sports Nutrition & Wellness Club strengthens the dietetic majors’ sports nutrition knowledge and counseling skills.

 


 

NUTRITION BEHAVIORS OF LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS

View Abstract
Category:
  Professional Poster

Research Type: Original Research

Primary Presenter Name: Allison J. Gregg, RDN, LD/N

Supporting Names:

  • Allison J. Gregg, RDN, LD/N
  • Anya S. Guy, RDN, LD/N
  • Raul A. Rosario Concepcion, M.D. Nutrition Department

Institution: Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL

Learning Objective:

Participants will identify inadequate nutrition behaviors of long distance runners. Participants will recognize there is a need for nutrition education among long distance runners.

Abstract: Nutrition is an important component of training in long distance running.  Adequate nutrition enhances athletic performance by decreasing fatigue, decreasing risk of illness and injury, optimizing training, and increasing muscle recovery.  Previous studies have indicated that long distance runners lack proper nutrition knowledge to implement adequate nutrition plans.  However, limited information is available regarding the actual nutrition behaviors of long distance runners.  This study assessed the nutrition behaviors of long distance runners.  In this study, subjects completed a survey including a demographics section, running history section, and nutrition behaviors section.  The survey was administered at the Donna Race Expo which included long distance runners competing in the following distances: marathon, half marathon, 10k, and 5k (N=447).  A majority of participants had never been evaluated by a dietitian in regards to sports nutrition (N= 395).   A majority of runners sampled do not use supplements pre-workout, intra-workout, and post workout (N=317, N=256, and N=285 respectively).  A majority of the runners also do not adjust their food intake on heavy and light training days (N=251 not increasing intake on heavy training days and N=301 not decreasing intake on light training days).  No difference existed between adjusting intake among runners with minimal running experience and runners with vast running experience.  Besides “other”, the most popular diet these runners follow is the Mediterranean diet (N=35).  A majority of the sample (N=385) monitor urine color before training reporting urine color as clear or clear-yellow.  Runners with history of completing more marathons were characterized by urine color of clear.  The findings from this study suggest that long distance runners are not following nutrition behaviors that enhance performance.  Despite hydrating adequately, runners are not fueling properly.  There is a need to implement nutrition education among long distance runners to improve nutrition behaviors which may result in improved performance.